The topic here is 16th & 17th century Ottoman Turks, so please stifle the comments regarding the current offerings from Turkey
I've been working through all the documents on the website, replacing images and I hope improving the content.
I may be the only one, but find this very interestinghttps://docs.google.com/document/d/1a96zUR-euesc1odcVR-j7iNCjjoOz7TU8P-AAWf4p0Y/edit
There was a rapid exchange of technology back-and-forth between Western to Eastern Europe and Russia, and on to Turkey, the Indian sub-continent and China.
"Between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries, direct military conflicts, the employment of European military experts and, to a lesser degree, illegal trade in weaponry ensured relatively easy dissemination of up-to-date technologies and military know-how in the Sultan’s realms. Istanbul was more than a simple recipient of foreign technologies with its Turkish and Persian artisans and blacksmiths, Armenian and Greek miners and sappers, Turkish, Bosnian, Serbian, Hungarian, Italian, German, and later French, English and Dutch foundrymen and military engineers…Turkish, Arab and Persian blacksmiths added to their expertise of metallurgy techniques of the Islamic East..."
Shortly after the lock ‘a la Miquelet
was invented in Spain about 1500, the Turks converted their matchlock Tüfenk (this one clearly with a Twist barrel) that the Janissary (fire-armed foot-soldiers) carried
And shortly thereafter Turkey and India were producing pattern welded barrels; of many patterns.
There are lots of examples on the document, including this Miquelet with 4 Iron Crolle
After the 1683 defeat of Kara Mustafa Pasha by Jan III Sobieski at Vienna, damascus blades (some of which the Crusaders no doubt carried home earlier) and Miquelet locks and barrels were now widely available to the armorers of Europe. The "Winged Hussars" are in the background.
A soldier front left is examining a damascus blade, and front right (the turban & green robe may signify a Jewish merchant) checking out a Miquelet.
By about 1700, pattern welded barrels were being produced in Liege & Portugal, and not long after in the rest of Europe and England!